Common Wood contains more than 330 species of flora and fauna, their diversity governed by the acidity or lime content of the soil in the zones where they are found. Though largely beechwood, there are stands of mature oak, an aspen grove, an “avenue” of Douglas Firs, and Scots pines. Certain areas are more akin to open heath, with gorse and bracken, while others are colonised by larch or silver birch or contain large tracts of cherry, laurel and holly.

Bramblings and siskins may be detected in winter, feeding with resident finches among the conifers; in spring, the drumming of the great spotted woodpecker, calling nuthatches or the song of the robin may be heard; in summer, migrant willow-warbler, chiffchaff and blackcap sing from the surrounding scrub. Numerous species of butterfly and moth have been recorded in Common Wood, such as the Brimstone and Red Admiral butterfly, and the impressive Elephant hawk-moth. Mammals include Foxes, Badgers, Grey Gquirrels, Glis-Glis and Muntjac. Hazel Dormice have also been recorded.

In spring, carpets of bluebells and Wood Sorrel fill the air with fragrance, while Fungi such as Fly Agaric are some of the principal delights of the woodland floor in autumn. Other flora is more modest: heath bedstraw being an example.